Cities and Warfare: The Impact of Terrorism on Urban Form

What impact will terrorism have on America’s cities? Historically, large-scale violence has
impacted cities in three ways. First, concentrations of people have an advantage in defending themselves
from attackers, making cities more appealing in times of violence. Second, cities often make attractive
targets for violence, which creates an incentive for people to disperse. Finally, since warfare and terrorism
often specifically target means of transportation, violence can increase the effective cost of transportation,
which will usually increase the demand for density. Evidence on war and cities in the 20th century
suggests that the effect of wars on urban form can be large (for example, Berlin in World War II), but
more commonly neither terrorism nor wars have significantly altered urban form. As such, across
America the effect of terrorism on cities is likely to be small. The only exception to this is downtown
New York which, absent large-scale subsidies, will probably not be fully rebuilt. Furthermore, such
subsidies make little sense to us. Read more